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      電子論文

      電氣自動化專業電子技術綜合實踐環節的實施及探索

      時間:2019年06月11日 所屬分類:電子論文 點擊次數:

      摘要:第三次科技革命以來,電子信息技術快速發展,眾多領域都加強了信息化的程度。電子信息技術也逐漸向智能制造、超大規模集成電路以及快速運算的方向發展,這些新的技術方向也對行業內的從業人員提出了更高的要求。因此,在人才的培養過程中,如果仍然采

        摘要:第三次科技革命以來,電子信息技術快速發展,眾多領域都加強了信息化的程度。電子信息技術也逐漸向智能制造、超大規模集成電路以及快速運算的方向發展,這些新的技術方向也對行業內的從業人員提出了更高的要求。因此,在人才的培養過程中,如果仍然采用傳統的教學模式,重理論、輕實踐,將不能培養出適應時代發展的優秀人才。基于此,本文首先介紹了實踐教學環節的意義和存在問題,隨后從三個方面介紹電子技術實踐的實施手段。

        關鍵詞:電氣自動化;電子技術;實踐教學

      實驗技術與管理

        0引言

        對于電氣自動化這樣一門主要用于工程實踐的專業而言,實踐教學十分重要。但是目前多數院校在人才培養的過程中,將主要精力放在理論教學方面,弱化了實踐教學。這樣一來,學生只會紙上談兵,在后期的工作過程中顯得能力不足。隨著教育改革的深入,實踐教學的地位也在逐步增加。作為培養要直接面向社會、面向工作崗位的人才的高等院校,更應該引起重視,增加實踐教學環節,注重理論與實踐的結合,提升學生的動手能力,培養出適應社會、同時也適應時代的專業人才。

        1電子技術實踐教學的意義

        電子技術涉及到信息技術、計算機技術、電工電子和自動化等多方面的內容,是一門綜合性很強的學科。在學習的過程中,多學科的交叉使得電子技術理論龐雜,理解記憶存在困難。雖然有些院校在理論教學方面投入很多,但是這種教學模式不僅不能加深學生的理解,同時作為短期快速記憶,很容易忘記,使得這些理論知識不能有效地在現實中進行應用。因此,改變教學方法,增加實踐教學環節就顯得十分重要。

        實踐教學可以讓學生綜合應用所學理論知識,在實際操作的過程中加深理解,發現不足。短期來看,這種方式可能效果不大,但是長期堅持的話,學生從學習興趣、能力提升和專業拓展等眾多方面,都會取得顯著進步。這樣一來,學生的理論知識不但沒有因此而弱化,實踐能力也會大幅提升,真正地成長為適應時代的人才[1]。

        從另一個角度來看,實踐教學環節由于具有開放性,學生在參與的過程中不僅能夠學到專業知識,而且還能夠樹立獨立思考的意識,培養他們發現問題、解決問題的能力。此外,經過長期的訓練,學生的創新能力也會有所提高。

        2電子技術實踐環節存在的問題

        (1)實踐課程課時過短。目前大部分院校雖然開設了實踐課程,但是相比于理論學習,這部分課程的課時非常短。即便是學生懷著很濃的興趣參加了實踐課程,但是課堂消化、課后鞏固等關鍵環節也因為時間有限而沒有充分發揮作用。

        (2)實驗活動流于形式。實踐教學環節的一大弊端就是流于形式,僅將實驗活動作為一種輔助教學的手段,在試驗內容上,絕大多數都是課本上某些經典理論的驗證實驗或者觀察實驗。這種與實際不相結合的實驗不僅浪費了時間,同時也沒有起到實質性的作用。

        (3)考核方式不合理,學生重視程度不高。高等院校盡管存在著多種評價手段,但是在比重上仍然是考試成績最大,實踐環節所占的比重非常小。這樣在很大程度上限制了學生參與實踐教學的熱情,降低了學生的重視程度,直接導致了實踐環節的失效。

        3實踐教學的實施與探索

        (1)理論與實踐相結合。在課程安排上,適當增加實踐教學的課時,在建立理論基礎之后,迅速針對所學知識進行實踐拓展。比如在學習完單片機的相關知識后,鼓勵學生利用所學知識,主動地去查閱資料、設計電路、編寫程序,制作一些例如信號燈、計時器、電子鬧鐘等實際作品,將理論與實踐相結合。

        (2)個性化培養。電氣自動化屬于工程專業,在后期都會開設課程設計等教學環節。這雖然算是一種實踐教學,但是課程設計的內容大多已經沿用了很多年,不僅因為參照資料過多而降低了難度,而且這些老舊的內容無法涉及到新方法、新技術,學生的實踐環節與時代發展相背離。因此,為改變這種情況,課程設計的內容需要進行改變,大膽嘗試新技術。同時,還可以將選擇權交給學生,讓他們自由地選擇課設題目,經過老師認可之后便可以充分發揮自己的才能,進行個性化設計。

        (3)加強動手能力。動手能力是電子技術綜合實踐的主要培養目標。以單片機的應用教學為例,在芯片的選擇、程序編寫等方面學生可以很出色地完成任務。但在操作過程中,類似程序燒制、電路焊接以及設備后期調試等眾多動手環節,學生的表現往往不盡如人意。因此,在實踐教學環節中,任何一個小的細節都應該讓學生親自動手嘗試,最大限度的訓練學生的動手操作能力[2]。

        (4)為學生的課后自學實踐創造條件。學生時代是創造性與想象力最為豐富的時代,尤其是如今這個信息爆炸的時代,每個學生理解問題的切入點有很大的差異,因此他們的想法也一定不相同。所以除了在課程設計的過程中采用個性化管理,在學生課后的自學生活中也需要個性化教育。但是目前眾多高校實驗室對學生的開放程度不夠,學生有了想法,卻沒有可行的條件去嘗試。為了改變這一現狀,可以放寬實驗室使用的申請條件,讓學生自由地結成課后小組,向老師提出合理申請之后便可以同小組成員一起使用實驗室,在加強團隊合作的同時,也能夠提升動手實踐能力。

        (5)改革考試評定機制。目前學生的考核主要以論文、答辯為主,這種模式下學生容易產生懈怠心理,將精力只用在這些方面。因此,可以在考核過程中綜合多個方面,將學生平時的實踐學習環節例如課程設計、實驗活動、學習小組的課題研究等多個方面納入到考核當中,充分調動學生參加實踐教學的積極性。

        4結束語

        電氣自動化作為一門工程類的專業,同時又是當今時代科技發展的主流,做好教學方法的改革十分重要。在這個過程中,電子技術綜合實踐是改革的重點。高校在人才培養的過程中要避免重理論、輕實踐以及流于形式等問題。從教師和學生兩種角度同時切入,將理論與實踐相結合,對學生進行個性化管理,培養學生的動手能力,同時調動盡可能多的資源,豐富學生課后的實踐學習環節。教學改革的道路依舊漫長,這個過程不僅要落實各種相關文件,同時更需要高校教育者們勇于嘗試與探索。

        參考文獻:

        [1]葉朝輝,華成英,閻捷,etal.模擬電子技術實踐創新能力培養的探索[J].實驗技術與管理,2017(01):34-37.

        [2]馬莉.電氣工程及自動化專業實踐教學體系的探索與構建[J].信息記錄材料,2017(10).

        相關刊物推薦:《實驗技術與管理》是面向全國各級各類高等學校實驗室的學術技術性期刊,1963年創刊,教育部主管,清華大學主辦,月刊,每月20日出刊。是中國科技核心期刊、《CAJ-CD規范》執行優秀期刊、國內外公開發行、是高校實驗室工作研究會會刊。

        

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