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      教育論文

      淺談區域活動材料投放與幼兒行為的關系

      時間:2019年06月06日 所屬分類:教育論文 點擊次數:

      摘要:在區域活動中,幼兒將與材料不斷互動。只有加強對區域活動材料投放與幼兒行為關系的認識,教師才能科學地組織幼兒區域活動。基于這點,教師可從幼兒認知行為、交往行為和創造行為發展角度,對區域活動材料投放等問題展開分析。 關鍵詞:區域活動;材料

        摘要:在區域活動中,幼兒將與材料不斷互動。只有加強對區域活動材料投放與幼兒行為關系的認識,教師才能科學地組織幼兒區域活動。基于這點,教師可從幼兒認知行為、交往行為和創造行為發展角度,對區域活動材料投放等問題展開分析。

        關鍵詞:區域活動;材料投放;幼兒行為

      閱讀與寫作

        作為幼兒活動開展的載體,區域活動材料是幼兒獲得行為發展的重要物質支柱之一。所以教師應通過合理投放區域活動材料,完成適宜幼兒行為發展的活動區域建構,促使幼兒在游戲過程中得到認知能力、交往能力和創造能力的發展,充分發揮區域活動材料的作用,繼而使區域活動開展能夠為幼兒帶來更多的意義。

        一、投放豐富材料,培養幼兒認知行為

        對于幼兒來講,區域活動是自主的,需要自己動腦和動手才能認識周邊事物,然后進行材料操作。在操作的過程中,幼兒會根據自身對環境、主題的認識和理解,進行材料選擇的判斷。為培養幼兒認知行為,教師應投放更加豐富的活動材料,激發幼兒的好奇心,引導幼兒通過看一看、摸一摸、試一試,加強對事物的感知和認識。為此,教師還應加強對幼兒興趣點的捕捉,以便對其中蘊含的教育契機進行更好地把握,使其貼近幼兒生活,為幼兒提供能夠盡情操作的材料。在幼兒的世界里,認知事物需要依賴色、味、形等感知覺,才能將所學的概念轉化為直接操作材料的行為。

        所以,在投放材料時,教師還應不定期和有意識地利用鮮活、生動的材料替代幼兒不感興趣的材料,使幼兒的感知覺得到進一步發展。為加強幼兒與材料、環境的對話,則要投放更加生活性的材料。如在娃娃家中投放水果、切菜板等模型玩具,幼兒會在材料的暗示下成為娃娃家的主人,通過材料的搭配和組合,滿足角色不同要求,主動思考作為父母的辛苦。針對同一區域,考慮到幼兒維持興趣的時間較短,教師還應不斷進行新活動材料的適當增添,引導幼兒通過探索,發現更多的事物,不斷豐富游戲內容。在“做中學,玩中學”的活動中,豐富的材料則將成為幼兒探索新事物的媒介,促使幼兒利用自己的方式進行活動體驗和自我教育,從而得到身心的和諧發展[1]。

        二、投放適量材料,發展幼兒交往行為

        在區域活動中,幼兒需要通過交往、合作開展活動,所以材料的投放還應當促進幼兒與同伴之間的交往。如果投放的材料十分充足,幼兒無需與同伴合作就能開展游戲,這樣就會影響幼兒社會性的發展。但是,如果投放的材料過少,又容易引發幼兒沖突,繼而不利于幼兒在交往過程中獲得良好的體驗。因此,在投放區域活動材料時,還應做到適量投放。在實際組織區域活動時,教師應當認識到區域活動為幼兒自主游戲時間,幼兒可以自主進行活動材料和區域的選擇,也更容易因材料獲取發生沖突。

        所以,在組織大班活動時,留給幼兒獨自活動的區域較少,幼兒之間交往較多,應適當增加材料數量,循序漸進的將材料投放給幼兒,確保材料數量可以滿足幼兒協同開展游戲的需要,同時也要能夠吸引幼兒注意力,促進幼兒的溝通交流。在組織小班活動時,幼兒能夠獨立活動的區域較多,教師可以適當減少材料投放量,以便督促幼兒通過交往互動實現材料共享,發生更多的交際行為,從而有效地得到社會性發展。作為教師,應為幼兒提供更多交往機會,使幼兒自由交往空間得到擴大。如,完成表演區的設置,投放一些面具、服裝、頭飾等材料,由幼兒自主進行表演活動的組織。在表演過程中,幼兒可以得到交往行為的激發,獲得更多與人交流的經驗,語言能力也能得到發展。

        三、投放有效材料,激發幼兒創造行為

        幼兒對材料的使用興趣,與投放的材料是否具有有效性有著直接的關系。區域活動中,投放的材料如果具有一定的挑戰性,并且能夠起到對幼兒游戲行為進行支持的作用,則能發揮激發幼兒的創造能力,體現出促進幼兒發展的價值。在實際進行區域活動材料投放時,教師可以完成更多探索性活動材料的投放,讓幼兒的創造動機得以激發。

        因為在自己選擇、觀察和動手的條件下,幼兒面對問題時會自覺產生創造行為。例如,在組織停車場區域活動時,我們可選擇以積木這類低結構性材料投放為主。因為這類材料擁有較多的功能,并且層次分明,能夠使幼兒從多角度感知材料,充分發揮想象力和創造力。如利用單元積木實現停車位分割等,完成各種各樣作品的建構,繼而使材料教育功能得到充分體現。

        在建構區中,教師還應加強沙、水等低結構性材料的投放,并且不做任何規定,以便使幼兒根據實際需要進行想象,得到發散思維的培養[2]。此外,為保證材料投放的有效性,我們還要讓材料與區域活動主題內容相適應。例如,在美工區開展環保主題活動時,我們可以投放收集的舊報紙、牛奶盒等廢舊材料。由幼兒根據美工活動開展需求,進行材料的自由選擇和處理。在應用簡單材料完成美工作品制作的過程中,幼兒不僅可以產生較多的創造行為,還能得到環保意識和創造能力的培養,從而使活動更加有效地開展。

        參考文獻:

        [1]孫瑤.角色游戲的材料投放與幼兒使用狀況的研究[J].好家長,2018(12):22.

        [2]蔣清清.把握材料投放原則發展幼兒創新行為[J].讀與寫(教育教學刊),2014(11):253.

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